[Graphic explanation] Yuzu essential oil – crop season, production, extraction –

[Graphic explanation] Yuzu essential oil – crop season, production, extraction –

 

Hello. I’m Pinfu working in a flavor and fragrance industry for about 10 years.

 

Do you know Yuzu? It is one of the popular citrus in Japan. Japanese people use it for drink, cooking and bath. Do you know how to get Yuzu essential oil? You will know about Yuzu totally and deeply by the checking the following points.

  • crop season
  • production
  • production area
  • how to get Yuzu essential oil

Especially regarding how to get Yuzu oil, Japanese don’t know about it normally. So if you talk about Yuzu, they will be surprised.

 

Abstract

Scientific nameCitrus junos
Crop seasonOctober – December
Productionabout 20,000 t (2017)
 For processingabout 15,000 t (2017)
Production areaKochi, Tokushima, Ehime
Oil contentPeel
Essential oil collection methodCold press, Solvent extraction, Steam distillation

 

Crop season

Fig. 1  Crop calendar

Blooming : May – June

Green Yuzu : July – Octiober

Harvest : October – December

 

The solvent extraction is one of the method for getting the essential oil. The extraction needs peel. Fresh peel is used in only November and December. Frozen peel can be used in any time.

 

Production

Fig. 2  Yuzu production in Japan

Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) data

Yuzu production is increasing from 2003 to 2008. Recently it is about 20,000 – 25,000 t. The quantity for processing is about 70% of the production.

 

Production area

Fig. 3  Production area and production ratio in Japan (2017)

MAFF data

Kochi is the main production area. Total ratio of Kochi, Tokushima and Ehime is 75%. These prefectures are in the west of Japan as the following fig. 4.

 

Fig. 4  Main production area and production ratio map (2017)

MAFF data

 

Oil content

Fig. 5  Citrus part name

There are two parts in citrus. Pulp and peel. Peel have two parts as the following.

– Albedo (white part of peel inside)
– Flavedo (yellow part of peel outside)

Oil gland has the essential oil, so we get it from albedo. 

 

Next, the use of Yuzu chart after crop is shown as the following.

Fig. 6  Use of Yuzu

After crop, Yuzu are selected for fresh and for processing. In 2017, the quantity for processing was 75%. If there is 100kg of Yuzu as fruits, 25kg is for fresh market and 75kg is for proccessing. The essential oil is got only from processing fruits. In other words, It is not got from fruits for fresh market. So we can use only 75% of Yuzu total production to get the essential oil.

 

The ratio parts of Yuzu in detail is shown as the following.

Fig. 7  Yuzu parts ratio

In case of Yuzu, we can get 19kg of juice form 100kg of fruits. At the same time, we can also get 47kg of peel. The essential oil is got from peel, so it is a by-product of juice.

 

How to get the essential oil

  • Cold press
  • Solvent extraction
  • Steam distilation

In this time, the solvent extraction flow is shown as the following.

Fig. 8  Yuzu solvent extraction flow

  1. Peel is got by squeezing.
  2. Albedo is removed by a slicer.
  3. Crushed peel is extracted by solvent (hexane).
  4. After removing the residue, the wax is removed by dewaxing.
  5. After removing the solvent, the essential oil is got.

 

We can know a caterpillar type squeezing by checking a movie of the following site. It is a Japanese site, the movie is to the bottom of the site page.

参考 Catarpillar type squeezingKumamoto FoodValley Agri Business Center

 

A reference page about solvent extraction is the following.

[Graphic explanation] Difference of absolute, concrete, oleoresin, resinoid

 

Summary

Scientific nameCitrus junos
Crop seasonOctober – December
Productionabout 20,000 t (2017)
 For processingabout 15,000 t (2017)
Production areaKochi, Tokushima, Ehime
Oil contentPeel
Essential oil collection methodCold press, Solvent extraction, Steam distillation
  • The quantity for processing is about 70% of total production.
  • Yuzu essential oil can be got only from processing fruits.
  • Yuzu essential oil is a by product of juice.
  • In a solvent extraction, peel (flavedo and oil gland) is used.

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